Pathology is a medical specialty that determines the cause and nature of diseases by examining and testing body tissues (from biopsies and pap smears, for example) and bodily fluids (from samples including blood and urine). The results from these pathology tests help doctors diagnose and treat patients correctly.


An electrocardiogram records the electrical signals in your heart. It's a common and painless test used to quickly detect heart problems and monitor your heart's health. Electrocardiograms — also called ECGs or EKGs — are often done in a doctor's office, a clinic or a hospital room. ECG machines are standard equipment in operating rooms and ambulances. Some personal devices, such as smart watches, offer ECG monitoring.

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Why it's done

An electrocardiogram is a painless, noninvasive way to help diagnose many common heart problems in people of all ages. Your doctor may use an electrocardiogram to determine or detect:

  • Abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmias)
  • If blocked or narrowed arteries in your heart (coronary artery disease) are causing chest pain or a heart attack
  • Whether you have had a previous heart attack
  • How well certain heart disease treatments, such as a pacemaker, are working
  • Symptoms of ECG
  • Chest pain
  • Dizziness, lightheadedness or confusion
  • Heart palpitations
  • Rapid pulse
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weakness, fatigue or a decline in ability to exercise

Fundus camera

Fundus photography is the process of taking serial photographs of the interior of your eye through the pupil. A fundus camera is a specialized low-power microscope attached to a camera used to examine structures such as the optic disc, retina, and lens

Purpose of Fundus Photography

Your eye specialist (ophthalmologist) may order for fundus photography to detect, follow, and treat eye illnesses such as follows:
  • Glaucoma (increased pressure in the eye can damage the eye nerve over time)
  • Diabetic retinopathy (eye complication in people with diabetes) such as follows:
  • Macular edema (swelling of the central part of the interior surface of your eye)
  • Microaneurysms (dilatation of the small vessels inside your eye)
  • Hypertensive retinopathy (eye complication in people with high blood pressure)

White or cotton wool spots on the nerve fibers inside your eye Age-related macular degeneration (deterioration of the central part of the interior surface of your eye due to age)

  • Optic atrophy (eye nerve damage)
  • Papilledema (swelling of the eye nerve)
  • Cancer of eye
  • Retinoblastoma (tumor inside your eye)
  • Color vision deficiencies
  • Congenital glaucoma (high pressure inside the eyeball since birth)
  • Congenital rubella (contagious viral infection of the eyes since birth)
  • Congenital anomalies (defect in the eyes since birth)
  • Toxoplasmosis (parasitic infection of the eyes)

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